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    Space Tourism | ISS to become space hotel in 2020

    Space Tourism | ISS Space Hotel


    NASA will allow Tourists to spend up to a month in the ISS complex that orbits the Earth at a price of 30,000 Euros per night.

    ISS Brand

    NASA will open the International Space Station (ISS) tourism to become a space hotel. The orbital laboratory, exclusive until now for scientific projects, will receive travelers in the near future, who will arrive through shuttles such as Space X by Elon Musk. It will not be necessary to become an astronaut, but to have the approximately 50 million Euros that the trip will cost.

     

    International Space Station

     

    NASA MAKES ROOM FOR SPACE TOURISIM

    The North American agency will not become a travel agency, but will operate through third-party companies -which must be American- that commercialize these space getaways.

     


    Although Russia has already started this type of space adventure tourism to the International Space Station, NASA had always rejected it.

     


    And they will set limits: only 12 private astronauts will be able to travel to the ISS every year, as long as they reimburse estimated expenses of 35,000 dollars a day (30,000 Euros).

     

    This amount, however, does not include transportation or other conditions to travel to space, such as previous training. The final cost of each trip would skyrocket up to 50 million dollars.

     


    The decision, announced at Nasdaq headquarters on Friday, aims to accelerate the innovation process to develop the new economy in low Earth orbit.

     


    These extra funds would be used by NASA as explained by its financial director, Jeff DeWitt, to be able to continue exploring space.

     


    Announced coinciding with the fiftieth anniversary of the Apollo mission, which brought the first man to the moon, the agency considers new challenges to send a new mission to the satellite, to take the first woman to the Moon, or continue exploring Mars.

     


    The new plans of  NASA look to accelerate the process of innovation to develop a new economy in the terrestrial low orbit.

     


    The truth is that NASA depends increasingly on private companies for funding and Donald Trump advocates the privatization of the space business.

     


    The idea of giving the international space station commercial use is not new; for three decades, different administrations have tried it, although no company had shown interest in managing these potential trips.

     


    Several US companies have already applied to market these space trips, which would take off in 2020



    The travelers will not be the first: since 2008, seven tourists have visited the ISS after paying a figure close to 20 million dollars to Russia. Even one of them, Charles Simonyi, participated twice.



    COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION

    The new plans of NASA, as explained by the Roby Gatens directive, now go to consult specialized companies.


    However, his initial idea is to allow up to two trips per year starting in 2020 with capacity for up to 12 tourists.

     

    They would arrive aboard capsules like the Crew Dragon and the Starliner that the SpaceX and Boeing companies are developing.

    Boeing Starliner

    Boeing CST-100 Starliner

     

     Dragon

     

     

    Another space traveler, Anglo-American entrepreneur Richard Garriott , who visited IBD in 2008, told Business Insider that NASA "aggressively" resisted this type of flight to the facilities managed by four other agencies: those of Russia , Japan, Canada and the European Space Agency.


    "He tried to dissuade us or forbid us [the trip] at one stage or another," he explained. He could not avoid it due to different agreements and international conventions.

     

    Now, pressed by the plans to return to the moon, where it could install a permanent mission, and the need to save the costs of maintaining the space station (about half of its annual budget, according to Business Insider), would be willing to use this formula of space tourism.



    POTENTIAL STAKEHOLDERS

    According to The New York Times, the Bigelow Aerospace company, based in Las Vegas, already showed interest in booking these trips. It will use SpaceX ships with four seats to send space tourists.

     


    Another company, Axiom Space, based in Houston, is also coordinating flights and expects to take off for the first time in 2020.

     


    The US also explained that it will request proposals from the private sector to add a commercial module to the space station and will select the final project by the end of the year.

     



    REFERENCES
    Space
    CNBC
    Pulse

    Partial Eclipse July 16-17 2019

    Partial Eclipse July 16-17 2019

     Partial Eclipse

    A partial lunar eclipse is coming and will be visible on the night of July 16, 2019, and July 17, 2019. It will be the last lunar eclipse of 2019. The partial lunar eclipse will be visible also from a number of other places on earth.


    Partial Lunar Eclipse

     

    But every jaw-dropping moment  of an eclipse is simply revealing what was there all along; somethings that, perhaps, we sometimes collectively just take for granted.

     

    Lunar Eclipse 2019

     

     

     

    According to reports, the Moon will enter penumbra on July 17, 2019, at around 12:12 AM. 

     

    The Moon will enter umbra at around 1.31 am and the maximum eclipse will be seen at around at 3 am.



    During this partial Lunar Eclipse, the moon will travel through the Earth’s outer penumbra before and after partially sweeping through the Earth’s inner dark umbral shadow. However, according to EarthSky, the penumbral stage will be so faint that most people won’t be even able to notice it.



    These dynamic lunar phenomena were feared by our ancient ancestors. Early human civilizations built their societies around season changes and annual movements of the sun, so when an eclipse occurred they believed that the natural order had been compromised. 

     

    To them, eclipses were a harbinger of danger — quite specifically, the apocalypse. Although we no longer connect these lunations to end days, astrologically speaking, eclipses are still a very big deal.



    In 2020, all four lunar eclipses will be hard-to-see penumbral eclipses. So if you’re in the right spot to watch tonight’s partial lunar eclipse, by all means do so.

     

    The last until 2021

    This will be the last time that the Earth’s dark shadow touches the moon’s surface until May 26, 2021.


    As interest in astrotourism grows, eclipse chasing has become an increasingly popular activity. Whether you travel to see an eclipse or are lucky enough to enjoy them as they pass over your home, there’s no denying that eclipses are powerful and humbling to experience.


    But even though eclipses are major, they’re actually not that rare. In fact, each year, there are between three and seven eclipses and they often occur in clusters. An eclipse series began on July 13, 2018 and will continue through 2020 .

    Partial lunar eclipse occurs when the earth moves between the sun and moon but the three celestial bodies do not form a straight line in space. When that happens, a part of the moon’s surface is covered by the darkest, central part of the earth’s shadow, called the umbra.


    More often than not, however, there is no eclipse at full moon. The full moon usually avoids being eclipsed because it swings to the north or south of the Earth’s shadow. This year, in 2019, we have 12 full moons but only two lunar eclipses.

     

    mnumbral eclipses are typically not discernible from a regular Moon in the skies.US space agency NASA said:

     

    “Throughout the year, the Moon's orbital tilt remains fixed with respect to the stars, meaning that it changes with respect to the Sun.“

     

    About twice a year, this puts the Moon in just the right position to pass through the Earth's shadow, causing a lunar eclipse.

     

    As  the Moon passes into the central part of the Earth's shadow, called the umbra, it darkens dramatically.”


    Will the eclipse be visible from Asia and other countries?

    The partial lunar eclipse will be visible in the majority of Asian nations, including India. The people living in the western and central region of India will witness the entire event, while those living in the eastern regions will get to see the partial lunar eclipse at moonset time in the wee hours.


    This event however favours the Eastern Hemisphere, known colloquially as the "Old World": Africa, Europe and western Asia. 

    Those located in South America, Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Australia, and parts of Europe will be able to experience and see July's lunar eclipse phenomenon firsthand. So that doesn't exactly bode well for those that live in North America. 

    South America will see the moon rise already within the Earth's shadow. Conversely, for central and eastern Asia and Australia, the eclipse will still be in progress when the moon sets during the dawn hours of July 17.


    How long will the eclipse last?


    According to NASA, at least two partial lunar eclipses happen every year, but total lunar eclipses are very rare. A lunar eclipse can last for a few hours.

     

    UK and the Partial Eclipse

     

    This partial eclipse of the Moon will be visible from across the UK on the evening of 16/17 July, with the Moon rising already partially immersed in Earth’s deep umbral shadow.

     

    You’ll need to find an observing site with an uninterrupted south-eastern outlook, but a humble pair of binoculars is a piece of equipment that  could enhance your enjoyment of the event.

     

    The Moon rises at around 9pm BST (20:00 UT ) and as it climbs slowly clear of the murky south-eastern horizon it shouldn’t be too difficult to spot an increasing fraction of its disc becoming darkened behind the curved shadow of the Earth.

    How clear is the Lunar features?

    How clearly defined the lunar features covered by Earth’s shadow and the edge of the shadow itself appear during the eclipse depends on local sky conditions.

    Make sure you have a pair of binoculars with you. For this eclipse, 65.3 per cent of the Moon’s diameter will be covered in deep shadow at the time of greatest eclipse. This occurs at 10.30pm BST (from London), by which time the Moon has hauled itself about eight degrees clear of the horizon.

     

    The end of the umbral phase of the eclipse occurs at midnight (BST), with the Moon at an altitude of around 15 degrees.

     

    The final chapter of this eclipse features the very subtle penumbral phase, when our satellite has moved wholly out of Earth’s deep umbral shadow. The penumbral phases of an eclipse are never easy to see, and with the Moon hanging relatively low over the south-eastern horizon, you’ll need pristine local sky conditions to see the ill-defined edge of Earth’s outer shadow steadily retreating across the lunar disc.

     

    The end of the penumbral phase at 1.17am BST signals the end of the eclipse.


    This event however favours the Eastern Hemisphere, known colloquially as the "Old World": Africa, Europe and western Asia. 

     

    In fact, according to paceTourismGuide.com, only those located in South America, Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Australia, and parts of Europe will be able to experience and see July's lunar eclipse phenomenon firsthand. So that doesn't exactly bode well for those of us in North America. 

     

    South America will see the moon rise already within the Earth's shadow. Conversely, for central and eastern Asia and Australia, the eclipse will still be in progress when the moon sets during the dawn hours of July 17.

     

    The moon leaves the darker shadow at midnight, and the eclipse ends when it exits the penumbra 79 minutes later.

     

    The moon will be low throughout the eclipse, so stargazers will need an unobstructed south-eastern and southern horizon. “You’re looking for anywhere that has a low unobstructed horizon, no tall buildings and trees in the way,” said Dr Morgan Hollis from the Royal Astronomical Society.

     

    “Unlike a solar eclipse it’s entirely safe to watch a lunar eclipse with the naked eye, so this one is fine, you don’t need any special equipment and it should be fairly warm as well, given temperatures recently, it should be good if the weather is clear and the conditions are clear.”

     

    If the Moon were in a perfectly circular orbit, a little closer to the Earth, and in the same orbital plane, there would be total solar eclipses every new moon.

     

    However, since the Moon's orbit is tilted at more than 5 degrees to the Earth's orbit around the Sun, its shadow usually misses Earth.

     

    A solar eclipse can only occur when the moon is close enough to the ecliptic plane during a new moon. Special conditions must occur for the two events to coincide because the Moon's orbit crosses the ecliptic at its orbital nodes twice every draconic month (27.212220 days) while a new moon occurs one every synodic month (29.530587981 days).

     

    Solar (and lunar) eclipses therefore happen only during eclipse seasons resulting in at least two, and up to five, solar eclipses each year; no more than two of which can be total eclipses.

     

    The magnitude of the eclipse, which refers to the maximum percent of the moon's diameter immersed within Earth's umbral shadow, will be 65%.

     

    This deepest stage of the eclipse will take place at 21:30 UTC, when the dark red-brown umbra will cover the northern 65% of the moon's diameter. The moon will appear directly overhead, or very nearly so, from the Mozambique Channel.

     

    When an eclipse of the Moon takes place, everyone on the night side of Earth can see it. About 35% of all eclipses are of the penumbral type which are very difficult to detect, even with a telescope.

     

    Another 30% are partial eclipses which are easy to see with the unaided eye. The final 35% or so are total eclipses, and these are quite extrordinary events to behold.

     

    References

    Fred Espenak 1970, Lunar Eclipses for Beginners, Viewed 17 July 2019, <http://www.mreclipse.com/Special/LEprimer.html>.

    Last Lunar Eclipse of 2019 Occurs Tuesday, Just in Time for Apollo ... 1970, Viewed 17 July 2019, <https://www.space.com/lunar-eclipse-july-2019-explained.html>.

    Lunar eclipse 2019: When is the partial lunar eclipse and where is it ... 1970, Viewed 17 July 2019, <https://www.itv.com/news/2019-07-16/uk-stargazers-prepare-for-partial-lunar-eclipse/>.

    Solar eclipse 1970, Viewed 17 July 2019, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse>.

     

    Karman Line: WHERE DOES EARTH END AND SPACE BEGIN?

    Karman Line: WHERE DOES EARTH END AND SPACE BEGIN?

     


    You might not think that there is a defined boundary between the Earth and outer space but there is.

     

     

     Karman Line

     

     

    But then again, you wouldn’t be wrong in thinking it is less a hard line like a border and more like a fluctuating definition of where and when Earth’s atmosphere ends and space begins.

     

     Karman Line


    This boundary between space and Earth serves as a legal mechanism for defining when a spacecraft is in Earth’s atmosphere - and possibly the airspace of a sovereign state - or in space where the laws are different and sovereign airspace does not apply.



    Established by the Fédération aéronautique internationale(FAI) a world standard setter and records organization for aeronautics and aerospace activities and known in English as the World Air Sports Federation.

     

    Karman Line defined by the FAI

    For the FAI the Karman line is about 330k feet above the Earth’s mean sea level or 100 km or 62 miles, depending on your system of measurement.

     

    Is there  a Universal definition  of the Karman Line?


    As you can probably see from the composition of the definition - particularly the mean sea level of the Earth - the Karman line’s calculation is somewhat complex but is meant to take into consideration the general range of features on Earth’s surface. 

     

    But it is not a universal definition, which should come as no surprise. 

     

    Other organizations have their own definitions of the boundary between space and the Earth’s atmosphere. For example, NASA lowers the line by some 12 miles to 50 miles above sea level.



    There are a myriad of reasons behind that but one commonly accepted explanation is that this is the agency’s definition for when one of its personnel has made it into space and thus merits the distinctions gifted by the organization’s outer space badges.

     

    There is no international law for the definition of the boundary of space hence why it is both a real thing and a conceptual thing at the same time.


    Why is there no international standard on this front?

    Basically, the issue is that there is the feeling by some nation states that an international boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere will limit airspace rights above that country which no nation is eager to give up. 

     

    One nation, in particular, the United States wields huge influence over most of the rules making bodies in this area and is pretty ambivalent about a hard definition because it would remove the largely lawless system we have now.



    One major concern in this area is that spacefaring technologies and opportunities have not been fully explored; therefore, agreeing to something now might unnecessarily limit the development of these areas later. 

     

    Nonethe less the organizations that measure and archive human achievemnt in the areas of air and space, like the World Air Sports Federation, then the Karman line is essential.



    Named after Hungarian engineer and physicist Theodore von Karman, In the last chapter of his autobiography Kármán address the issue of edge of outer space.

     

    Karman

     Theodore von Karman

     

    " Where space begins… can actually be determined by the speed of the space vehicle and its altitude above the earth.

    Consider, for instance, the record flight of Captain Iven Carl Kincheloe Jr. in an X-2 rocket plane. Kincheloe flew 2000 miles per hour (3,200 km/h) at 126,000 feet (38,500 m), or 24 miles up.

    At this altitude and speed, aerodynamic lift still carries 98 per cent of the weight of the plane, and only two per cent is carried by centrifugal force, or Kepler Force, as space scientists call it. 

    But at 300,000 feet (91,440 m) or 57 miles up, this relationship is reversed because there is no longer any air to contribute lift: only centrifugal force prevails. 

    This is certainly a physical boundary, where aerodynamics stops and astronautics begins, and so I thought why should it not also be a jurisdictional boundary? 

    Haley has kindly called it the Kármán Jurisdictional Line. Below this line space belongs to each country. Above this level there would be free space ".


    The Karman line is likely to serve as the definitional boundary between the Earth’s atmosphere and space for quite some time to come or at least until an internationally binding law can be developed.

    Reference

    The edge of space: Revisiting the Karman Line 1970, Viewed 14 July 2019, <https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094576518308221>.

    What altitude is considered the Edge of Space? | MiGFlug.com Blog 1970, Viewed 14 July 2019, <https://migflug.com/jetflights/what-altitude-is-the-edge-of-space/>.

    What is the Kármán line, and where is the edge of space? 1970, Viewed 14 July 2019, <https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2018/12/where-is-the-edge-of-space-and-what-is-the-karman-line/>.

    Where is space? | NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and ... 1970, Viewed 14 July 2019, <https://www.nesdis.noaa.gov/content/where-space>.

    Why defining the boundary of space may be crucial for the future of ... 1970, Viewed 14 July 2019, 

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%A1rm%C3%A1n_line#cite_note-6

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%A1rm%C3%A1n_line

    Will Mining Space Produce the World’s First Trillionaire?

    Will Mining Space Produce the World’s First Trillionaire?

     

    Will Mining Space Produce the World’s First Trillionaire?


    The renewed interest in space exploration sparked by Tesla billionaire Elon Musk and Amazon mogul Jeff Bezos has also reawakened speculative thinking about the resources present on the moon and beyond.

     Asteroid Mining

    In papers dating back to 1970, the concept of mining the moon for raw materials - for both energy and construction in space - is nothing new. What has changed is our knowledge of the moon, the logistics behind construction in space, and what kind of resource expenditure would be required to get such an operation up and running.

     

    Technology exploring the lunar surface

    Like everything in the free market, a lot of the reasons behind why we haven’t seen anything like this have to do with return on investment and perceived need, neither of which are there at the moment. But that doesn’t mean that space won’t always be prohibitively expensive to use as a vital resource and it could lead to the first trillionaire when someone or something first masters how to extract resources from the moon and beyond.

    One of the biggest use cases for mining in space has to do with the moon and the construction of a colony on the lunar surface. While this is often the dream of science fiction, it is becoming more and more a scientific possibility as the resources needed to sustain a colony on the moon are being discovered and technology has finally caught up to allow this to happen.



    How lucrative will this venture be?

    In the immediate future, not very but, depending on the eventual size of this market, extracting resources from the lunar surface could prove one of the most profitable ventures ever undertaken. A huge reason for this is that mining for resources on the moon involves techniques that are impossible on Earth’s surface due to gravity and other factors. These novel extraction methods could allow for an abundant supply of certain materials for energy and construction in space.


    What kinds of resources could we extract from space?

    Water on the moon's surface at the poles

    Let’s take our satellite, the moon, as an example. Scientists speculate that the lunar surface regolith, the fine lunar dust, could be used to shield structures from the effects of radiation once lunar colonies start being built. Near the moon’s poles there is also the presence of water ice, which could be used for everything from supporting a colony to creating rocket fuel. This is no small deal, either, as CEO of Moon Express Robert Richards points out that, “Water is the oil of the solar system and those companies who are able to harvest and harness extraterrestrial deposits of water will make Exxon look like a lemonade stand.”

     

     

    Minerals on lunar highlands, lunar lowlands and earth

    Miners could also obtain metals from the soil through a process of chemical reduction including things like iron, titanium, and aluminum. Shipping these back to Earth would not be very profitable, however, due to the metals relative abundance on the planet’s surface. They could be useful for a lunar colony and would provide raw materials needed for an established base. Down the line, as a lunar colony grows and becomes more established, rare earths, thorium, and helium-3 could be mined from the moon and would be suitable for export back to Earth but this will only happen after a well-established lunar colony exists on the moon.



    Does all of this sound a little bit far fetched?

    Yes and no, but really it all depends on the development of the market and how much of a demand there is out there. Plus there is the impact of enabling technologies suchh as the increase in the number of nations with space faring capabilities as well as more and more companies getting in on that game. Heck, it could become such a veritable landscape of profiteering that we could see space pirates and the like. Imagine a Cowboy Bebop-esque world if you want an accurate picture of what we’re talking about.



    Mining space isn’t so far fetched when you consider how much humanity’s access to space will increase over the coming decades. As long as progress remains unabated, you can expect to see nations and companies racing to the stars and you can bet your bottom dollar that each one will be seeking an advantage over the other. Until that market emerges, space will remain the final frontier but it could be the biggest profit opportunity staring us all in the face right now.