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    Space Country Report

    UNITED STATES SPACE PROGRAMME

     

    The United States programme has its origin rooted in the Intermediate Range and Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Programs that became known at the end of World War II when the military wanted to be able to launch larger and heavier payloads into space with the use of rockets.

     

    This is why a lot of the earliest spacecrafts launched like the Titan, Thor and Atlas originated as IRBMs (Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile) and ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile).

     

    In the mid-1950s, the United States had access and technology to launch a satellite into Earth’s orbit. The country planned to launch this satellite into Earth’s orbit by the end of the century, but the launch of the Sputnik 1 satellite by the Soviet Union in 1957 prompted the country to adjust their previous schedule. And, about a year and a half after the launch of the Sputnik 1, the United States was able to successfully send the American Explorer 1 into Earth’s orbit followed by Vanguard.


    In the summer of 1958, the United States established the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA). This space agency slowly took over the responsibilities that were previously played by the country’s armed forces. This was done to reinforce the United States claim that it is interested in preserving space for peaceful activities.

     


    OBJECTIVES OF NASA


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is in charge of unique scientific and technological achievements in human spaceflight, space science, aeronautics, and space applications that have proven to have significant impacts on the public and the world in general. The establishment of the agency was prompted by the early achievement of the Soviet Union in launching the Sputnik 1. The agency was developed on the NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) and other government agencies, as the center of the United States aerospace research and development.


    NASA’S SPACE PROGRAMME


    On October 1, 1958, after the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), it increased the speed of ongoing projects on human and robotic spaceflight. The agency’s first high profile program was Project Mercury, which was an attempt to learn if humans are capable of surviving in space.


    The second high profile program was Project Gemini, which used spacecraft that were designed for two astronauts to perfect the capabilities required for the national objective of a human trip to the surface of the Moon by the end of the 1960s. this mission was achieved by Project Apollo in July 1969 and this led to the successful landing of five additional lunar missions through 1972. Following the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz Test Projects in the mid-1970s, the agency resumed its human spaceflight efforts in 1981, with the Space Shuttle program that continued for about 30 years. The Space Shuttle was a revolutionary shuttle that was vital to the next step of the country’s space programme, which was the development of the International Space Station (ISS).

     

    NASA has been able to reach significant milestones in their space program for the past 60 years with the help of their cutting edge aeronautics research that has significantly improved the way we design and build aircraft. The agency has also been able to finish the reconnaissance of the solar system with a deep study of all the planets. The agency has also used orbital spacecraft like the Hubble Space Telescope to significantly change human’s knowledge of the universe around us and our own planet as well.


    The agency’s early work on launch vehicles, weather satellites, and communication satellites has also fundamentally changed daily life and developed new industries. The agency acts as a catalyst for international cooperation and has improved how and why humans conduct space activities. And currently, the agency is planning on improving space travel by helping humans encourage a strong commercial space economy near Earth. It also plans to lead the way for further human and robotic exploration of space.

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    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has also signed inter-governmental space cooperation agreements with other countries like Chile, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Ukraine, Russia, the United States, France, India, Pakistan, Italy, Germany, and some other countries. The governmental space cooperation agreements have resulted in significant achievements. It also has partnerships with private organizations like Space X, the space company founded by Elon Musk.


    NASA GOALS


    NASA is planning on increasing the number of its robotic probes on Mars, the Red Planet, in order to study the planet’s interior. It also plans to use the Mars 2020 rover to search for evidence of past microbial life, collect samples for future return to Earth and study resources that could someday support astronauts.


    The agency will also be studying every phase in the history of the Universe in infrared with the aid of the James Webb Space Telescope for the next decade. It will also use the Parker Solar Probe to attempt to touch the sun (This will travel closer to the surface of the sun than any spacecraft).


    In April 2018, it has also launched the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite which is tasked with searching for planets outside our solar system by monitoring 200,000 bright, nearby stars. It is also planning a mission to Europa, Jupiter’s ocean bearing Moon in the 2020s.


    NASA is currently using the growing scientific knowledge of our solar system to design and build the most advanced rockets and spacecraft to lead the next steps of human exploration farther into space that humans have ever traveled before. These spacecraft will carry astronauts to the Moon, Mars and other destinations in space.


    The agency is also planning to launch more astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) and develop a new generation of commercial spacecraft and rockets to supply cargo to the station. It is also studying the astronauts that spend a long time in space to learn how future crews can thrive on longer missions farther into the solar system.


    NASA has maintained its goal to use the vantage point of space to gain a better knowledge of Earth and explore it in order to improve lives and safeguard humankind’s future. The agency launched two space missions ICESat-2 and GRACE Follow-On to continue the long-term record of how Earth’s ice sheets, sea level, and underground water reserves are changing.

    REFERENCES
    Mtholyoke
    NASA
    Wikipedia
    Britannica
    NASA

     

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    RUSSIAN- ROSCOSMOS STATE CORPORATION FOR SPACE ACTIVITIES

    The agency that is mainly responsible for Russia’s space programme is the Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities which is often commonly referred to as Roscosmos.

     

    The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities is said to be a state corporation that is responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics programme for the Russian Federation. Roscosmos was initially part of the Federal Space Agency, and then it developed and secured itself as the national state corporation on December 28, 2015, through a presidential decree.


    Originally before 1992, Roscosmos was commonly known as the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The main aim of the Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities is to oversee and execute a comprehensive reform of the Russian Space industry. The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities is in charge of ensuring the execution of the Russian government’s Space programme and its legal regulation. Roscosmos is also in charge of placing orders for the development supply and manufacture of space equipment and space infrastructure materials.

     


    The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities has its headquarters situated in Moscow while its primary Mission Control Space Center is situated in the nearby city of Korolev. And also, the Russian training center Yuri Gagarin Training Center is situated in Star city, which is also in Moscow Oblast. It mainly uses launch facilities like the Vostochny Cosmodrome that is built in the Russian Far East in Amur Oblast and the Baikonur Cosmodrome which situated in Kazakhstan and most manned and unmanned launches often take place there.

     

    The present director of the Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities since May 2018 is Dmitry Rogozin. Also, in 2015, the Russian government combined the Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities with the United Rocket and Space Corporation, which made it become the Roscosmos State Corporation which is a renationalized Russian Space industry. The Roscosmos State Corporation is in charge of the international space cooperation and tasked with preparing the stage for the future use of results of space activities in the social and economic development of Russia.

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    SPACE PROGRAMME


    The Russian Space agency is also credited with being the agency to first successfully send a human into the Earth’s orbit. The first man to orbit the Earth is the Russian Yuri Gagarin on April 12, 1961, in the first manned spacecraft for 108 minutes. And the first woman in space is the Russian Valentina Tereshkova who orbited the Earth 48 times on June 16 to June 19 in 1963. The Russian Space Agency has also been credited with the launch of the first artificial satellite during the reign of the Soviet Union.


    The Roscosmos State Corporation is in charge of the international space cooperation and tasked with preparing the stage for the future use of results of space activities in the social and economic development of Russia.


    Cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov also became the first man to take a spacewalk on March 18, 1965. And by July 17 to July 19, U.S. astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts take part in the Apollo Soyuz Test Project, docking together for a period of two days. The Space Agency also launched its first unmanned space shuttle, Buran on November 15, 1988. This was three hours, twenty-minute flight. Two Cosmonauts Musa Manarov and Vladimir Titov return to Earth after participating in human’s longest space flight on the Soviet space station for 365 days, 22 hours and 39 minutes.


    Also, Norman Thagard became the first American to be launched on a Russian rocket on March 14, 1995, and after two days of flight; he became the first Americal to be aboard the Russian Space station Mir. By November 2, 2000, a crew containing Americans and Russians has started living together onboard the International space station.


    The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities has also announced its plan to send a possible probe to the Red Planet, Mars in the future. The main objective of the Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities is to explore the space and look for regions that will later be a space station. This agency has also expressed its interest in the permanent colonization of Mars for future human habitation.


    The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities has also signed inter-governmental space cooperation agreements with other countries like Chile, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Ukraine, Russia, the United States, France, India, Pakistan, Italy, Germany, and some other countries. The governmental space cooperation agreements have resulted in significant achievements.

     


    GOALS OF THE ROSCOSMOS STATE CORPORATION FOR SPACE ACTIVITIES


    The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities was established to be the coordinating center for space activities in Russia. This agency is tasked with performing a number of civilian activities (including monitoring the Earth and Russian Space programme) and coordinating with the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation for Military Launches.


    Originally before 1992, Roscosmos was commonly known as the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. The main aim of the Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities is to oversee and execute a comprehensive reform of the Russian Space industry. The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities is in charge of ensuring the execution of the Russian government’s Space programme and its legal regulation. Roscosmos is also in charge of placing orders for the development supply and manufacture of space equipment and space infrastructure materials.

     

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    The Roscosmos State Corporation is in charge of the international space cooperation and tasked with preparing the stage for the future use of results of space activities in the social and economic development of Russia.

    OBJECTIVES


    The former head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Vladimir Popovkin announced that the Roscosmos State Corporation for State Activities plans to launch an unmanned spacecraft to the moon before 2050. He also revealed at a State Duma Session that further research will be mainly aimed at space exploration like the exploration of planets in the Solar System such as Mars and the Moon.


    The Roscosmos State Corporation is in charge of the international space cooperation and tasked with preparing the stage for the future use of results of space activities in the social and economic development of Russia.
    The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities has also announced its plan to send a possible probe to the Red Planet, Mars in the future. The main objective of the Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities is to explore the space and look for regions that will later be a space station. This agency has also expressed its interest in the permanent colonization of Mars for future human habitation.


    The present president of Russia, Vladimir Putin has announced some vital parts of Russia’s space program on Thursday, April 12, 2018, when the nation was celebrating its national Cosmonautics Day. On this day, the whole nation of Russia celebrated the anniversary of Yuri Gagarin who was famous for being the first human to orbit the Earth. The Russian official stated that this day was the perfect day to celebrate their nation’s space program and announce their future objectives.


    The president also announced on this day that they will carry out the first tests of a new super-heavy rocket sometime in the next ten years. These super heavy rockets will be tested at the Vostochny Cosmodrome that is located in Russia’s Far East. However, the president also added that in order to perform these tests, a special infrastructure is required there including a dedicated launch compound. The president revealed that one more launch pad is required at the Vostochny Cosmodrome and that work on the rocket and the new launch site should be carried out simultaneously.


    The president also revealed that the country has plans to develop its lunar program. He announced that the Roscosmos State Corporation of Space Activities is planning to send its first crewed mission to the moon by 2030 to create a space station in lunar orbit. After the development of the Moon Orbiting space station, the agency also plans to send modules to the moon. A module is a self contained unit of a spacecraft. There are a lot of different modules that make up the International Space Station.


    It was also revealed that the super heavy rocket will be playing a huge role in the country’s lunar program as well as the new series of Spacecraft known as “Federation”. The first of these spacecraft is said to be under manufacturing by RKK Energia, the Spacecraft Manufacturer.

    REFERENCES
    Phys
    Wikipedia
    Space Flight Insider
    Space Daily
    Roscosmos
    NASA

    JAPAN SPACE PROGRAMME


    The beginning of the Japan space programme can be traced back to the mid-1950s when a research group led by Hideo Itokawa at the University of Tokyo. Initially, the size of the rocket designed by the Japan space programme was less than 30cm (12inches), then it increased to over 15m (49ft) in the mid-1960s. The primary goal of this original research was to successfully launch a man-made satellite.


    By the 1960s, two organizations have been created for space activities and its regulations and these organizations are the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS).

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) was already designing and building its own rocket at the time. As a result of numerous failures in the 1990s and 2000s, the two organizations; NASDA and ISAS, merged along with the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL) to form the unified Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in October 2003.


    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is in charge of research, technology development and launch of satellites into orbit, and it is involved in a lot of advanced missions like asteroid exploration and possible manned exploration of the Moon. The agency was established as an Administrative Institution administered by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT).

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    Before the three organizations were merged to form the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), NAL was in charge of aviation research, ISAS was focused on space and planetary research and NASDA had designed and developed rockets, satellites, and also built the Japanese Experiment Module. NASDA was established on October 1, 1969, and its old headquarters is situated at the present site of the Tanegashima Space Center, on Tanegashima Island, 115 kilometers south of Kyūshū.


    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has its offices and centers located throughout the country, including in Tokyo, Tsukuba, Sagamihara and space centers with launch sites in Kagoshima. The agency also has overseas offices in Washington D.C, Moscow, Paris, Houston, and Bangkok.

     


    OBJECTIVES OF JAPAN AEROSPACE EXPLORATION AGENCY (JAXA)


    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) serves as the space agency of Japan to carry out a range of activities involving space like basic research, development, and utilization. The agency has about 1,500 staff and its main responsibilities include;
    Promoting the use of satellite to improve the quality of life.
    Improving scientific knowledge of the universe and the origin of life.
    Exploration of the Moon and planets to widen the horizon of human activity.
    To achieve progress in Key industries.
    To ensure the operation of the International Space Station and improve the use of space environment to develop new opportunities for the society.
    Developing rocket technologies to improve reliability for stable transport, related research, and manned space flight.
    Improve engineering research, to follow aviation safety and environmentally-friendly technologies.
    To use fundamental engineering research to carry out autonomous space activities.
    The agency also has offices and centers to undertake educational activities and to pursue collaborations with the industry and academia.



    JAXA SPACE PROGRAMME


    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is in charge of research, technology development and launch of satellites into orbit, and it is involved in a lot of advanced missions like asteroid exploration and possible manned exploration of the Moon. The agency was established as an Administrative Institution administered by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT).


    Before the three organizations were merged to form the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), NAL was in charge of aviation research, ISAS was focused on space and planetary research and NASDA had designed and developed rockets, satellites, and also built the Japanese Experiment Module. NASDA was established on October 1, 1969, and its old headquarters is situated at the present site of the Tanegashima Space Center, on Tanegashima Island, 115 kilometers south of Kyūshū.


    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is in charge of all space activities in Japan and these activities can range from basic space research to ongoing space missions. The Japan space program has existed long before the beginning of JAXA and it includes numerous contributions to the International Space Station (ISS). Its contribution to the International Space Station (ISS) includes the Kibo research module (including a robotic arm) and regular cargo flights to the station using the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The agency has also been recognized for its numerous robotic exploration missions like the Hayabusa's sample return mission from asteroid 25143 Itokawa, the lunar mission SELENE and the new self-checking rocket, Epsilon.


    In 1985, the first set of Japanese astronauts to be sent to space was selected under NASDA. This project selected three candidates namely; Takao Doi, Mamoru Mohri, and Chiaki Mukai. The first Japanese astronaut to be sent to space was Mamoru Mohri who was launched to space aboard STS-47 in 1992. There are also several Japanese experiments in the Spacelab-J, a scientific module on the Space Shuttle Endeavor, which is a currently a retired orbiter from NASA’s space shuttle program and the fifth operational shuttle built. The first Japanese astronaut to operate robotics in space is Koichi Wakata, who was part of the 1992 astronaut class.


    The first Japanese astronaut to take a space was Takao Doi in 1997 when he did procedure evaluations for station aboard STS-87. After these more astronauts were chosen in many rounds to fill the demand for orbital slots and the JAXA’s most recent astronaut selection was in 2009. JAXA and NASDA developed cargo spaceships and Kibo (the first Japanese Module for human spaceflight) for the International Space Station (ISS). The agency is currently planning to develop a “talking robot”, Kiribo for the International Space Station (ISS). The Kiribo was designed to interact with astronauts and collect data about their mental health while on the International Space Station (ISS).


    Japan also has a lot of robotic space missions like the launch of Hayabusa, which was one of Japan’s most popular robotic missions. The Hayabusa was successfully sent to space in 2003 and it arrives at the asteroid in September 2005. The spacecraft deployed a lander called Minerva that was designed to move from one place to another on the surface of the asteroid, but the lander failed. However, a second spacecraft, Hayabusa 2 was launched to space in December 2014 to a carbonaceous asteroid named Ryugu in order to collect samples of the asteroid and return to Earth. The spacecraft is expected to leave the asteroid in the late 2019 and return to Earth in late 2020.


    The agency has also launched the SELenological and ENgineering Explorer (SELENE, also known as Kayuga) which was a mission to explore the surface of the Moon. This mission aims to study the mineralogical composition, geography, surface and sub-surface structure, gravity field and the remnant of the magnetic field of the Moon.


    In September 2006, the agency also launched the Hinode (SOLAR-B) spacecraft to perform solar observations in space. The main aim of this mission is to better understand the solar corona, which is the atmosphere of the sun. This will help us better predict solar weather and its effects on Earth. The Astro-H/Hitomi X-ray observatory was also launched sometime in early 2016 by the agency but the mission lost contact with Earth and was declared lost.


    The space agency also plans to launch the Epsilon rocket, which will be able to perform its own health checks and relieve the work burden of off-ground controllers.

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    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is in cooperation with other national space agencies of nations like France, China, Russia, ESA, and the United States. The International Space Station is a joint project among five space agencies from different nations; Roscosmos (Russian), CSA (Canada), NASA (United States), JAXA (Japan) and ESA (Europe).


    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has also announced its plan to design and build manned spacecraft for Moon landing by 2020. This project is expected to be completed by 2030 but the agency will first launch an unmanned Moon probe in 2021. If these missions are successful, they will be the firsts in the history of Japan space programme.

    REFERENCES
    Iafastro
    Britannica
    Wikipedia
    Space
    Wikipedia
    JAXA
    JAXA
    Diplomat

    UNITED KINGDOM SPACE AGENCY (UKSA)

    The United Kingdom Space agency which is also often referred to as the UKSA or UK Space agency is an executive agency of the United Kingdom government that is in charge of the United Kingdom’s civil Space programme.

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    CHINA – CNSA, THE CHINA NATIONAL SPACE ADMINISTRATION

    China Flag designed by  曾联松 Zeng Liansong (source  Wikipedia).

     

    The national space agency responsible for the national space program in China is the China National Space Administration (CNSA). This agency is said to be in charge of the planning and development of space activities. The China National Space Administration (CNSA) and the China Aerospace Corporation took over the China space program from the Ministry of Aerospace Industry. It serves as a subsidiary agency under the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (SASTIND) which is also a subsidiary of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT). The China National Space Administration has its headquarters located in Haidian District of Beijing.

     

    HISTORY OF THE CHINA NATIONAL SPACE ADMINISTRATION (CNSA)

     

    The CNSA is a space agency established in 1993 when the Ministry of Aerospace Industry was divided in the China Aerospace Corporation (CASC) and China National Space Administration (CNSA). The China Aerospace Corporation (CASC) is in charge of space policy in China while the China National Space Administration (CNSA) is in charge of the execution of the policy. However, this situation turned out inadequate results as a result of the fact that these two agencies are in effect one large agency that shares both management and personnel.

    This is why; China announced in 1998 during a big restructuring, that the CASC was divided into a few smaller state-owned companies. This restructuring was done to create a system that has similar characteristics to that of Western Defense procurement in which units that are government agencies set operational policy and would then contract out their operational requirements to units that are owned by the government but not managed by the government.

     

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    CNSA GOALS

     

    The main goal of the establishment of the China National Space Administration (CNSA) is to develop and fulfill China’s due international obligations with the approval of the Eighth National People’s Congress of China (NPC). The Ninth NPC has announced the CNSA will be an internal structure of the Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND).  The main responsibilities of the China National Space Administration (CNSA) include;

    • Signing government agreement that has to do with China’s space program on behalf of the organization and inter-governmental scientific and technical exchanges.
    • The agency is also in charge of the execution of the national space policies.
    • The agency is also in charge of managing the national space science, technology, and industry.
    • The China National Space Administration has also signed governmental space cooperation agreements with other countries like Chile, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Ukraine, Russia, the United States, France, India, Pakistan, Italy, Germany, and some other countries. The governmental space cooperation agreements have resulted in significant achievements.

    The China National Space Administration has about four main departments and they are;

    1. Department of Foreign Affairs
    2. Department of General Planning
    3. Department of Science, Technology and Quality Control
    4. Department of System Engineering

     

     

    SPACE PROGRAMME

     

    The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is the national agency that manages all of China’s Space activities. But unlike the other national space agencies in other countries worldwide, the agency is not associated with the International Space Station. However, the agency has a small space station of its own.

    In 2003, the China National Space Administration (CNSA) was able to take Yang Liwei to space. Yang Liwei then became the first Chinese man in Space. And since then, the agency has been able to launch several manned spacecraft into space. The agency also launched its first Chinese manned docking named Shenzhou 9 that has a three-man crew in space, attaching to the single room station, Tiangong 1. 

    In December 2014, the Space agency was also able to successfully make its first soft landing on the moon in decades with its spacecraft Chang’e 3 and its rover, Yutu. The China National Space Administration (CNSA) has also been making periodic launches alone using its Chang Zheng (Long March) rocket series.

    Some time ago, China’s space agency announced its plan to become the first agency to successfully land a spacecraft on the far side of the moon which is always hidden from view. This mission will prove to be a little challenging because of the fact that it is impossible to receive and transmit radio transmission from there which makes communication with their ground space station impossible. But the success of such missions will provide humans with more insights on many things that we do not know about the moon such as what is going on deep beneath its thick crust.

    The spacecraft that was designed to be launched into the far side of the moon by China is known as Chang’e 4 and it was scheduled launched sometime in late 2018. However, this spacecraft was able to reach the far side of the moon on January 2, 2019. The Chang’e 4 was named after the popular Moon goddess in China.

    Another history made by the Chang’e 4 space mission is plant growth on the moon. Almost two weeks after the Chang’e 4 landed successfully on the moon, the China National Space Administration announced that the cotton and potato seeds that were taken to the moon on the Chang’e spacecraft have started to germinate. Although plants have previously been grown on the International Space Station, this marks the first time a biological matter has been grown on the moon.

    The seed for these plants was made dormant for the 20 days duration of the trip to the moon. The cotton and potato seed are not growing in a sealed container on the spacecraft where they will attempt to create a small biosphere. This mission is considered a huge step in the consideration of future survival in space.

     

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    OBJECTIVES

     

    The China National Space Administration (CNSA) has been announcing some of its future plans for space travel and exploration. China space agency has also revealed that it has plans to launch another spacecraft to land on the moon by the end of 2019. This spacecraft will be called Chang’e 5 and it will be able to enable astronauts to scoop up samples and return the specimens to the scientists on Earth for detailed analysis in ground-based laboratories. 

    The CNSA has also revealed that it will launch two more Chang’e Landers, Chang’e 6 and Chang’e 7. This new Chang’e Landers will focus mainly on the south pole of the moon. The Chang’e 6 will be launched and then it will return with samples from the moon’s South Pole, while the Chang’e 7 will be launched to conduct comprehensive surveys around the region including the study of the region’s terrain, landform, and its physical composition. It was also revealed that another Chang’e lander, Chang’e 8 will be launched to test key technologies as the foundation for potential development of a science and research base on the Moon which is our nearest celestial body.

    The China National Space Administration has also announced its plan to send a possible probe to the Red Planet, Mars by 2020. The main objective of the China National Space Administration is to explore the space and look for regions that will later be a space station. This agency has also expressed its interest in the permanent colonization of Mars for future human habitation.

     

    REFERENCES

    Wikipedia

    Room EU

    Space

    Satellite link